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56 分词短语作状语在句中的不同意义 Track54

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2020年09月02日

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56 分词短语作状语在句中的不同意义 Track54

分词短语作状语,其实就是相应的状语从句简化的结果(见Chapter 7这章),在句中可表示时间、原因、条件、让步、结果、伴随等。
(1)表时间,分词短语一般要置于句首。
1)绝大多数情形下,分词动作发生在谓语动作之前。
a. Having watered the garden, he began to mow the lawn.= After he had watered the garden, he began to mow the lawn.
b. Having noted down our names and addresses, the policeman dismissed us.
c. Reading the letter, she burst out crying.
= As she read the letter, she burst out crying.
d. Locking the door, he went home.
e. Hearing the joke, we burst out laughing.
2)分词动作与谓语动作同时发生。
a. Riding in the street during the rush hours, you must be careful .
= When you are riding in the street during the rush hours, you must be careful.
若强调两个动作同时发生,多在分词结构前加when或while,例如:
b.Be careful when crossing the street.
(2)表示原因,分词短语可置于句首或句末,有时还置于主谓之间。
a. It being so nice a day, let's go out for a walk.
= Since it is so nice a day, let's go out for a walk.
b. Not knowing what to do next, I want to ask for your advice.
= Because I don't know what to do next, I want to ask for your advice.
c.Clint, horrified at what he had done, could at first say nothing.
克林特被自己所做的事吓坏了,一开始都说不出话来。
(3)表条件,通常放在句首。
a. Given more time, I would be able to complete it.
= If I were given more time, I would be able to complete it.
b. Weather permitting , we'll go fishing.
= If weather permits, we'll go fishing.
c. United , we stand; divided , we fail.
= If we are united, we stand; if we are divided, we fail.
d. If seen under a microscope, a fresh snowflake has a delicate six-pointed shape. 如果从显微镜下观察,新降的雪花有纤小的六瓣。
e. Added to steel, chromium(铬) increases the metal's hardness.
(4)表让步,通常放在句首。
a. Having lived in Canada for three years, he still can't speak English well.= Though he has lived in Canada for three years, he...
b. Mocked at by everybody, he had my sympathy. =Though he was mocked at by everybody, he...
c. Though understanding no Japanese, Charles was able to commu-nicate with them.
d. Although usually living on or under rocks or on coral reefs, marine snails have been observed in a great variety of habitats.
e. Although still running in a number of cities, the electric trolley has for the most part fallen into disuse.
(5)表结果,一般只放在句末,否则句子意义会不同。
a. Finding the door locked, I went home. 发现门锁着,我就回家了。(finding表示时间)
b.I went home, finding the door locked. 我回到家里,发现门锁着。(finding表示结果)
c.His wife died three years ago, leaving him with five children.
d.It rained for two weeks on end, completely ruining our holiday.
e.He fired, killing one of the bandits.
他开了枪,击毙了其中一名匪徒。
f.The film The Gua Sha Treatment exposes profound cultural conflicts between the East and West, arousing concerns in Chinese audiences.
影片《刮痧》深刻揭示了东西方文化的差异,引起中国观众的强烈反响。
(6)表伴随状况、补充说明或方式,分词短语置于句首或句末均可。
a. Smiling , he answered. 他笑着回答道。
b.A traveler once visited a city where everyone wore blue. Puzzled , he went to a dyer and said, "Please dye this handkerchief red.”
c.He came running breathless and told me the results.
d.She came running hurriedly into her husband's office one morning.
一天早上,她匆忙跑进丈夫的办公室。
e.We sat talking about college life on the grass.
f.The old man enjoyed sitting in the sun listening to radio.
g.The truck passed by, with a wake of dust floating toward me.
h.The Chinese word for crisis is divided into two characters, one meaning danger and the other meaning opportunity.
中文中的“危机”分为两个字,一个意味着危险,另一个意味着机会。
i.When asked, "Do you consider yourself an optimistic or pessimistic person?" 53 per cent of the students replied, "optimistic," with 21 per cent choosing "pessimistic," and 26 per cent "unsure”.
j.In Italian legends, mermaids come ashore, marry men, and bear them children. But in time these mermaid wives desert their husbands and take their children away to the depth of the ocean. The Chinese say the mermaids pass their time weeping . When they weep, their tears turn into pearls.
k.With more than 3 million hardcover copies sold in its first two years of publication, Who Moved My Cheese? has become an amazing best-seller, topping the New York Times, Wall Street Journal, Business Week and USA Today lists.

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